[systemd-devel] [ANNOUNCE] systemd 198
lennart at poettering.net
Thu Mar 7 15:12:10 PST 2013
Finally, here's 198, with many big changes:
* Configuration of unit files may now be extended via drop-in
files without having to edit/override the unit files
themselves. More specifically, if the administrator wants to
change one value for a service file foobar.service he can
now do so by dropping in a configuration snippet into
/etc/systemd/systemd/foobar.service.d/*.conf. The unit logic
will load all these snippets and apply them on top of the
main unit configuration file, possibly extending or
overriding its settings. Using these drop-in snippets is
generally nicer than the two earlier options for changing
unit files locally: copying the files from
/usr/lib/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/ and editing
them there; or creating a new file in /etc/systemd/system/
that incorporates the original one via ".include". Drop-in
snippets into these .d/ directories can be placed in any
directory systemd looks for units in, and the usual
overriding semantics between /usr/lib, /etc and /run apply
for them too.
* Most unit file settings which take lists of items can now be
reset by assigning the empty string to them. For example,
normally, settings such as Environment=FOO=BAR append a new
environment variable assignment to the environment block,
each time they are used. By assigning Environment= the empty
string the environment block can be reset to empty. This is
particularly useful with the .d/*.conf drop-in snippets
mentioned above, since this adds the ability to reset list
settings from vendor unit files via these drop-ins.
* systemctl gained a new "list-dependencies" command for
listing the dependencies of a unit recursively.
* Inhibitors are now honored and listed by "systemctl
suspend", "systemctl poweroff" (and similar) too, not only
GNOME. These commands will also list active sessions by
* Resource limits (as exposed by the various control group
controllers) can now be controlled dynamically at runtime
for all units. More specifically, you can now use a command
like "systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares
2000" to alter the CPU shares a specific service gets. These
settings are stored persistently on disk, and thus allow the
administrator to easily adjust the resource usage of
services with a few simple commands. This dynamic resource
management logic is also available to other programs via the
bus. Almost any kernel cgroup attribute and controller is
* systemd-vconsole-setup will now copy all font settings to
all allocated VTs, where it previously applied them only to
the foreground VT.
* libsystemd-login gained the new sd_session_get_tty() API
* This release drops support for a few legacy or
distribution-specific LSB facility names when parsing init
scripts: $x-display-manager, $mail-transfer-agent,
$mail-transport-agent, $mail-transfer-agent, $smtp,
$null. Also, the mail-transfer-agent.target unit backing
this has been removed. Distributions which want to retain
compatibility with this should carry the burden for
supporting this themselves and patch support for these back
in, if they really need to. Also, the facilities $syslog and
$local_fs are now ignored, since systemd does not support
early-boot LSB init scripts anymore, and these facilities
are implied anyway for normal services. syslog.target has
also been removed.
* There are new bus calls on PID1's Manager object for
cancelling jobs, and removing snapshot units. Previously,
both calls were only available on the Job and Snapshot
* systemd-journal-gatewayd gained SSL support.
* The various "environment" files, such as /etc/locale.conf
now support continuation lines with a backslash ("\") as
last character in the line, similar in style (but different)
to how this is supported in shells.
* For normal user processes the _SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT= field is
now implicitly appended to every log entry logged. systemctl
has been updated to filter by this field when operating on a
user systemd instance.
* nspawn will now implicitly add the CAP_AUDIT_WRITE and
CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL capabilities to the capabilities set for
the container. This makes it easier to boot unmodified
Fedora systems in a container, which however still requires
audit=0 to be passed on the kernel command line. Auditing in
kernel and userspace is unfortunately still too broken in
context of containers, hence we recommend compiling it out
of the kernel or using audit=0. Hopefully this will be fixed
one day for good in the kernel.
* nspawn gained the new --bind= and --bind-ro= parameters to
bind mount specific directories from the host into the
* nspawn will now mount its own devpts file system instance
into the container, in order not to leak pty devices from
the host into the container.
* systemd will now read the firmware boot time performance
information from the EFI variables, if the used boot loader
supports this, and takes it into account for boot performance
analysis via "systemd-analyze". This is currently supported
only in conjunction with Gummiboot, but could be supported
by other boot loaders too. For details see:
* A new generator has been added that automatically mounts the
EFI System Partition (ESP) to /boot, if that directory
exists, is empty, and no other file system has been
configured to be mounted there.
* logind will now send out PrepareForSleep(false) out
unconditionally, after coming back from suspend. This may be
used by applications as asynchronous notification for
system resume events.
* "systemctl unlock-sessions" has been added, that allows
unlocking the screens of all user sessions at once, similar
how "systemctl lock-sessions" already locked all users
sessions. This is backed by a new D-Bus call UnlockSessions().
* "loginctl seat-status" will now show the master device of a
seat. (i.e. the device of a seat that needs to be around for
the seat to be considered available, usually the graphics
* tmpfiles gained a new "X" line type, that allows
configuration of files and directories (with wildcards) that
shall be excluded from automatic cleanup ("aging").
* udev default rules set the device node permissions now only
at "add" events, and do not change them any longer with a
later "change" event.
* The log messages for lid events and power/sleep keypresses
now carry a message ID.
* We now have a substantially larger unit test suite, but this
continues to be work in progress.
* udevadm hwdb gained a new --root= parameter to change the
root directory to operate relative to.
* logind will now issue a background sync() request to the kernel
early at shutdown, so that dirty buffers are flushed to disk early
instead of at the last moment, in order to optimize shutdown
times a little.
* A new bootctl tool has been added that is an interface for
certain boot loader operations. This is currently a preview
and is likely to be extended into a small mechanism daemon
like timedated, localed, hostnamed, and can be used by
graphical UIs to enumerate available boot options, and
request boot into firmware operations.
* systemd-bootchart has been relicensed to LGPLv2.1+ to match
the rest of the package. It also has been updated to work
correctly in initrds.
* Policykit previously has been runtime optional, and is now
also compile time optional via a configure switch.
* systemd-analyze has been reimplemented in C. Also "systemctl
dot" has moved into systemd-analyze.
* "systemctl status" with no further parameters will now print
the status of all active or failed units.
* Operations such as "systemctl start" can now be executed
with a new mode "--irreversible" which may be used to queue
operations that cannot accidentally be reversed by a later
job queuing. This is by default used to make shutdown
requests more robust.
* The Python API of systemd now gained a new module for
reading journal files.
* A new tool kernel-install has been added that can install
kernel images according to the Boot Loader Specification:
* Boot time console output has been improved to provide
animated boot time output for hanging jobs.
* A new tool systemd-activate has been added which can be used
to test socket activation with, directly from the command
line. This should make it much easier to test and debug
socket activation in daemons.
* journalctl gained a new "--reverse" (or -r) option to show
journal output in reverse order (i.e. newest line first).
* journalctl gained a new "--pager-end" (or -e) option to jump
to immediately jump to the end of the journal in the
pager. This is only supported in conjunction with "less".
* journalctl gained a new "--user-unit=" option, that works
similar to "--unit=" but filters for user units rather than
* A number of unit files to ease adoption of systemd in
initrds has been added. This moves some minimal logic from
the various initrd implementations into systemd proper.
* The journal files are now owned by a new group
"systemd-journal", which exists specifically to allow access
to the journal, and nothing else. Previously, we used the
"adm" group for that, which however possibly covers more
than just journal/log file access. This new group is now
already used by systemd-journal-gatewayd to ensure this
daemon gets access to the journal files and as little else
as possible. Note that "make install" will also set FS ACLs
up for /var/log/journal to give "adm" and "wheel" read
access to it, in addition to "systemd-journal" which owns
the journal files. We recommend that packaging scripts also
add read access to "adm" + "wheel" to /var/log/journal, and
all existing/future journal files. To normal users and
administrators little changes, however packagers need to
ensure to create the "systemd-journal" system group at
package installation time.
* The systemd-journal-gatewayd now runs as unprivileged user
scripts need to create these system user/group at
* timedated now exposes a new boolean property CanNTP that
indicates whether a local NTP service is available or not.
* systemd-detect-virt will now also detect xen PVs
* The pstore file system is now mounted by default, if it is
* In addition to the SELinux and IMA policies we will now also
load SMACK policies at early boot.
Contributions from: Adel Gadllah, Aleksander Morgado, Auke
Kok, Ayan George, Bastien Nocera, Colin Walters, Daniel Buch,
Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David Strauss,
Eelco Dolstra, Enrico Scholz, Frederic Crozat, Harald Hoyer,
Jan Janssen, Jonathan Callen, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin
Pitt, Mauro Dreissig, Max F. Albrecht, Michael Biebl, Michael
Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michal Vyskocil,
Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel Chen, Nestor
Ovroy, Oleksii Shevchuk, Paul W. Frields, Piotr Drąg, Rob
Clark, Ryan Lortie, Simon McVittie, Simon Peeters, Steven
Hiscocks, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom
Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, William Giokas, Zbigniew
Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeeshan Ali (Khattak)
Lennart Poettering - Red Hat, Inc.
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