[systemd-devel] systemd 251 released

systemd tag bot donotreply-systemd-tag at refi64.com
Sat May 21 13:41:11 UTC 2022

🎆 A new, official systemd release has just 🎉 been 🎊 tagged 🍾. Please download the tarball here:


Changes since the previous release:

        Backwards-incompatible changes:

        * The minimum kernel version required has been bumped from 3.13 to 4.15,
          and CLOCK_BOOTTIME is now assumed to always exist.

        * C11 with GNU extensions (aka "gnu11") is now used to build our
          components. Public API headers are still restricted to ISO C89.

        * In v250, a systemd-networkd feature that automatically configures
          routes to addresses specified in AllowedIPs= was added and enabled by
          default. However, this causes network connectivity issues in many
          existing setups. Hence, it has been disabled by default since
          systemd-stable 250.3. The feature can still be used by explicitly
          configuring RouteTable= setting in .netdev files.

        * Jobs started via StartUnitWithFlags() will no longer return 'skipped'
          when a Condition*= check does not succeed, restoring the JobRemoved
          signal to the behaviour it had before v250.

        * The org.freedesktop.portable1 methods GetMetadataWithExtensions() and
          GetImageMetadataWithExtensions() have been fixed to provide an extra
          return parameter, containing the actual extension release metadata.
          The current implementation was judged to be broken and unusable, and
          thus the usual procedure of adding a new set of methods was skipped,
          and backward compatibility broken instead on the assumption that
          nobody can be affected given the current state of this interface.

        * All kernels supported by systemd mix RDRAND (or similar) into the
          entropy pool at early boot. This means that on those systems, even if
          /dev/urandom is not yet initialized, it still returns bytes that that
          are at least as high quality as RDRAND. For that reason, we no longer
          have reason to invoke RDRAND from systemd itself, which has
          historically been a source of bugs. Furthermore, kernels ≥5.6 provide
          the getrandom(GRND_INSECURE) interface for returning random bytes
          before the entropy pool is initialized without warning into kmsg,
          which is what we attempt to use if available. systemd's direct usage
          of RDRAND has been removed. x86 systems ≥Broadwell that are running
          an older kernel may experience kmsg warnings that were not seen with
          250. For newer kernels, non-x86 systems, or older x86 systems, there
          should be no visible changes.

        * sd-boot will now measure the kernel command line into TPM PCR 12
          rather than PCR 8. This improves usefulness of the measurements on
          systems where sd-boot is chainloaded from Grub. Grub measures all
          commands its executes into PCR 8, which makes it very hard to use
          reasonably, hence separate ourselves from that and use PCR 12
          instead, which is what certain Ubuntu editions already do. To retain
          compatibility with systems running older systemd systems a new meson
          option 'efi-tpm-pcr-compat' has been added (which defaults to false).
          If enabled, the measurement is done twice: into the new-style PCR 12
          *and* the old-style PCR 8. It's strongly advised to migrate all users
          to PCR 12 for this purpose in the long run, as we intend to remove
          this compatibility feature in two year's time.

        * busctl capture now writes output in the newer pcapng format instead
          of pcap.

        * An udev rule that imported hwdb matches for USB devices with
          lowercase hexadecimal vendor/product ID digits was added in systemd
          250. This has been reverted, since uppercase hexadecimal digits are
          supposed to be used, and we already had a rule that with the
          appropriate match.

          Users might need to adjust their local hwdb entries.

        * arch_prctl(2) has been moved to the @default set in the syscall filters
          (as exposed via the SystemCallFilter= setting in service unit files).
          It is apparently used by the linker now.

        * The tmpfiles entries that create the /run/systemd/netif directory and
          its subdirectories were moved from tmpfiles.d/systemd.conf to

          Users might need to adjust their files that override tmpfiles.d/systemd.conf
          to account for this change.

        * The requirement for Portable Services images to contain a well-formed
          os-release file (i.e.: contain at least an ID field) is now enforced.
          This applies to base images and extensions, and also to systemd-sysext.

        Changes in the Boot Loader Specification, kernel-install and sd-boot:

        * kernel-install's and bootctl's Boot Loader Specification Type #1
          entry generation logic has been reworked. The user may now pick
          explicitly by which "token" string to name the installation's boot
          entries, via the new /etc/kernel/entry-token file or the new
          --entry-token= switch to bootctl. By default — as before — the
          entries are named after the local machine ID. However, in "golden
          image" environments, where the machine ID shall be initialized on
          first boot (as opposed to at installation time before first boot) the
          machine ID will not be available at build time. In this case the
          --entry-token= switch to bootctl (or the /etc/kernel/entry-token
          file) may be used to override the "token" for the entries, for
          example the IMAGE_ID= or ID= fields from /etc/os-release. This will
          make the OS images independent of any machine ID, and ensure that the
          images will not carry any identifiable information before first boot,
          but on the other hand means that multiple parallel installations of
          the very same image on the same disk cannot be supported.

          Summary: if you are building golden images that shall acquire
          identity information exclusively on first boot, make sure to both
          remove /etc/machine-id *and* to write /etc/kernel/entry-token to the
          value of the IMAGE_ID= or ID= field of /etc/os-release or another
          suitable identifier before deploying the image.

        * The Boot Loader Specification has been extended with
          /loader/entries.srel file located in the EFI System Partition (ESP)
          that disambiguates the format of the entries in the /loader/entries/
          directory (in order to discern them from incompatible uses of this
          directory by other projects). For entries that follow the
          Specification, the string "type1" is stored in this file.

          bootctl will now write this file automatically when installing the
          systemd-boot boot loader.

        * kernel-install supports a new initrd_generator= setting in
          /etc/kernel/install.conf, that is exported as
          $KERNEL_INSTALL_INITRD_GENERATOR to kernel-install plugins. This
          allows choosing different initrd generators.

        * kernel-install will now create a "staging area" (an initially-empty
          directory to gather files for a Boot Loader Specification Type #1
          entry). The path to this directory is exported as
          $KERNEL_INSTALL_STAGING_AREA to kernel-install plugins, which should
          drop files there instead of writing them directly to the final
          location. kernel-install will move them when all files have been
          prepared successfully.

        * New option sort-key= has been added to the Boot Loader Specification
          to override the sorting order of the entries in the boot menu. It is
          read by sd-boot and bootctl, and will be written by kernel-install,
          with the default value of IMAGE_ID= or ID= fields from
          os-release. Together, this means that on multiboot installations,
          entries should be grouped and sorted in a predictable way.

        * The sort order of boot entries has been updated: entries which have
          the new field sort-key= are sorted by it first, and all entries
          without it are ordered later. After that, entries are sorted by
          version so that newest entries are towards the beginning of the list.

        * The kernel-install tool gained a new 'inspect' verb which shows the
          paths and other settings used.

        * sd-boot can now optionally beep when the menu is shown and menu
          entries are selected, which can be useful on machines without a
          working display. (Controllable via a loader.conf setting.)

        * The --make-machine-id-directory= switch to bootctl has been replaced
          by --make-entry-directory=, given that the entry directory is not
          necessarily named after the machine ID, but after some other suitable
          ID as selected via --entry-token= described above. The old name of
          the option is still understood to maximize compatibility.

        * 'bootctl list' gained support for a new --json= switch to output boot
          menu entries in JSON format.

        * 'bootctl is-installed' now supports the --graceful, and various verbs
          omit output with the new option --quiet.

        Changes in systemd-homed:

        * Starting with v250 systemd-homed uses UID/GID mapping on the mounts
          of activated home directories it manages (if the kernel and selected
          file systems support it). So far it mapped three UID ranges: the
          range from 0…60000, the user's own UID, and the range 60514…65534,
          leaving everything else unmapped (in other words, the 16bit UID range
          is mapped almost fully, with the exception of the UID subrange used
          for systemd-homed users, with one exception: the user's own UID).
          Unmapped UIDs may not be used for file ownership in the home
          directory — any chown() attempts with them will fail. With this
          release a fourth range is added to these mappings:
          524288…1879048191. This range is the UID range intended for container
          uses, see:


          This range may be used for container managers that place container OS
          trees in the home directory (which is a questionable approach, for
          quota, permission, SUID handling and network file system
          compatibility reasons, but nonetheless apparently commonplace). Note
          that this mapping is mapped 1:1 in a pass-through fashion, i.e. the
          UID assignments from the range are not managed or mapped by
          `systemd-homed`, and must be managed with other mechanisms, in the
          context of the local system.

          Typically, a better approach to user namespacing in relevant
          container managers would be to leave container OS trees on disk at
          UID offset 0, but then map them to a dynamically allocated runtime
          UID range via another UID mount map at container invocation
          time. That way user namespace UID ranges become strictly a runtime
          concept, and do not leak into persistent file systems, persistent
          user databases or persistent configuration, thus greatly simplifying
          handling, and improving compatibility with home directories intended
          to be portable like the ones managed by systemd-homed.

        Changes in shared libraries:

        * A new libsystemd-core-<version>.so private shared library is
          installed under /usr/lib/systemd/system, mirroring the existing
          libsystemd-shared-<version>.so library. This allows the total
          installation size to be reduced by binary code reuse.

        * The <version> tag used in the name of libsystemd-shared.so and
          libsystemd-core.so can be configured via the meson option
          'shared-lib-tag'. Distributions may build subsequent versions of the
          systemd package with unique tags (e.g. the full package version),
          thus allowing multiple installations of those shared libraries to be
          available at the same time. This is intended to fix an issue where
          programs that link to those libraries would fail to execute because
          they were installed earlier or later than the appropriate version of
          the library.

        * The sd-id128 API gained a new call sd_id128_to_uuid_string() that is
          similar to sd_id128_to_string() but formats the ID in RFC 4122 UUID
          format instead of simple series of hex characters.

        * The sd-device API gained two new calls sd_device_new_from_devname()
          and sd_device_new_from_path() which permit allocating an sd_device
          object from a device node name or file system path.

        * sd-device also gained a new call sd_device_open() which will open the
          device node associated with a device for which an sd_device object
          has been allocated. The call is supposed to address races around
          device nodes being removed/recycled due to hotplug events, or media
          change events: the call checks internally whether the major/minor of
          the device node and the "diskseq" (in case of block devices) match
          with the metadata loaded in the sd_device object, thus ensuring that
          the device once opened really matches the provided sd_device object.

        Changes in PID1, systemctl, and systemd-oomd:

        * A new set of service monitor environment variables will be passed to
          OnFailure=/OnSuccess= handlers, but only if exactly one unit lists the
          handler unit as OnFailure=/OnSuccess=. The variables are:
          $MONITOR_INVOCATION_ID and $MONITOR_UNIT. For cases when a single
          handler needs to watch multiple units, use a templated handler.

        * A new ExtensionDirectories= setting in service unit files allows
          system extensions to be loaded from a directory. (It is similar to
          ExtensionImages=, but takes paths to directories, instead of
          disk image files.)

          'portablectl attach --extension=' now also accepts directory paths.

        * The user.delegate and user.invocation_id extended attributes on
          cgroups are used in addition to trusted.delegate and
          trusted.invocation_id. The latter pair requires privileges to set,
          but the former doesn't and can be also set by the unprivileged user

          (Only supported on kernels ≥5.6.)

        * Units that were killed by systemd-oomd will now have a service result
          of 'oom-kill'. The number of times a service was killed is tallied
          in the 'user.oomd_ooms' extended attribute.

          The OOMPolicy= unit file setting is now also honoured by

        * In unit files the new %y/%Y specifiers can be used to refer to
          normalized unit file path, which is particularly useful for symlinked
          unit files.

          The new %q specifier resolves to the pretty hostname
          (i.e. PRETTY_HOSTNAME= from /etc/machine-info).

          The new %d specifier resolves to the credentials directory of a
          service (same as $CREDENTIALS_DIRECTORY).

        * The RootDirectory=, MountAPIVFS=, ExtensionDirectories=,
          *Capabilities*=, ProtectHome=, *Directory=, TemporaryFileSystem=,
          PrivateTmp=, PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork=, NetworkNamespacePath=,
          PrivateIPC=, IPCNamespacePath=, PrivateUsers=, ProtectClock=,
          ProtectKernelTunables=, ProtectKernelModules=, ProtectKernelLogs=,
          MountFlags= service settings now also work in unprivileged user
          services, i.e. those run by the user's --user service manager, as long
          as user namespaces are enabled on the system.

        * Services with Restart=always and a failing ExecCondition= will no
          longer be restarted, to bring ExecCondition= behaviour in line with
          Condition*= settings.

        * LoadCredential= now accepts a directory as the argument; all files
          from the directory will be loaded as credentials.

        * A new D-Bus property ControlGroupId is now exposed on service units,
          that encapsulates the service's numeric cgroup ID that newer kernels
          assign to each cgroup.

        * PID 1 gained support for configuring the "pre-timeout" of watchdog
          devices and the associated governor, via the new
          RuntimeWatchdogPreSec= and RuntimeWatchdogPreGovernor= configuration
          options in /etc/systemd/system.conf.

        * systemctl's --timestamp= option gained a new choice "unix", to show
          timestamp as unix times, i.e. seconds since 1970, Jan 1st.

        * A new "taint" flag named "old-kernel" is introduced which is set when
          the kernel systemd runs on is older then the current baseline version
          (see above). The flag is shown in "systemctl status" output.

        * Two additional taint flags "short-uid-range" and "short-gid-range"
          have been added as well, which are set when systemd notices it is run
          within a userns namespace that does not define the full 0…65535 UID

        * A new "unmerged-usr" taint flag has been added that is set whenever
          running on systems where /bin/ + /sbin/ are *not* symlinks to their
          counterparts in /usr/, i.e. on systems where the /usr/-merge has been

        * Generators invoked by PID 1 will now have a couple of useful
          environment variables set describing the execution context a
          bit. $SYSTEMD_SCOPE encodes whether the generator is called from the
          system service manager, or from the per-user service
          manager. $SYSTEMD_IN_INITRD encodes whether the generator is invoked
          in initrd context or on the host. $SYSTEMD_FIRST_BOOT encodes whether
          systemd considers the current boot to be a "first"
          boot. $SYSTEMD_VIRTUALIZATION encode whether virtualization is
          detected and which type of hypervisor/container
          manager. $SYSTEMD_ARCHITECTURE indicates which architecture the
          kernel is built for.

        * PID 1 will now automatically pick up system credentials from qemu's
          fw_cfg interface, thus allowing passing arbitrary data into VM
          systems similar to how this is already supported for passing them
          into `systemd-nspawn` containers. Credentials may now also be passed
          in via the new kernel command line option `systemd.set_credential=`
          (note that kernel command line options are world-readable during
          runtime, and only useful for credentials that require no
          confidentiality). The credentials that can be passed to unified
          kernels that use the `systemd-stub` UEFI stub are now similarly
          picked up automatically. Automatic importing of system credentials
          this way can be turned off via the new
          `systemd.import_credentials=no` kernel command line option.

        * LoadCredential= will now automatically look for credentials in the
          /etc/credstore/, /run/credstore/, /usr/lib/credstore/ directories if
          the argument is not an absolute path. Similarly,
          LoadCredentialEncrypted= will check the same directories plus
          /etc/credstore.encrypted/, /run/credstore.encrypted/ and
          /usr/lib/credstore.encrypted/. The idea is to use those directories
          as the system-wide location for credentials that services should pick
          up automatically.

        * System and service credentials are described in great detail in a new


        Changes in systemd-journald:

        * The journal JSON export format has been added to listed of stable
          interfaces (https://systemd.io/PORTABILITY_AND_STABILITY/).

        * journalctl --list-boots now supports JSON output and the --reverse option.

        * Under docs/: JOURNAL_EXPORT_FORMATS was imported from the wiki and
          updated, BUILDING_IMAGES is new:


        Changes in udev:

        * Two new hwdb files have been added. One lists "handhelds" (PDAs,
          calculators, etc.), the other AV production devices (DJ tables,
          keypads, etc.) that should accessible to the seat owner user by

        * udevadm trigger gained a new --prioritized-subsystem= option to
          process certain subsystems (and all their parent devices) earlier.

          systemd-udev-trigger.service now uses this new option to trigger
          block and TPM devices first, hopefully making the boot a bit faster.

        * udevadm trigger now implements --type=all, --initialized-match,
          --initialized-nomatch to trigger both subsystems and devices, only
          already-initialized devices, and only devices which haven't been
          initialized yet, respectively.

        * udevadm gained a new "wait" command for safely waiting for a specific
          device to show up in the udev device database. This is useful in
          scripts that asynchronously allocate a block device (e.g. through
          repartitioning, or allocating a loopback device or similar) and need
          to synchronize on the creation to complete.

        * udevadm gained a new "lock" command for locking one or more block
          devices while formatting it or writing a partition table to it. It is
          an implementation of https://systemd.io/BLOCK_DEVICE_LOCKING and
          usable in scripts dealing with block devices.

        * udevadm info will show a couple of additional device fields in its
          output, and will not apply a limited set of coloring to line types.

        * udevadm info --tree will now show a tree of objects (i.e. devices and
          suchlike) in the /sys/ hierarchy.

        * Block devices will now get a new set of device symlinks in
          /dev/disk/by-diskseq/<nr>, which may be used to reference block
          device nodes via the kernel's "diskseq" value. Note that this does
          not guarantee that opening a device by a symlink like this will
          guarantee that the opened device actually matches the specified
          diskseq value. To be safe against races, the actual diskseq value of
          the opened device (BLKGETDISKSEQ ioctl()) must still be compred with
          the one in the symlink path.

        * .link files gained support for setting MDI/MID-X on a link.

        * .link files gained support for [Match] Firmware= setting to match on
          the device firmware description string. By mistake, it was previously
          only supported in .network files.

        * .link files gained support for [Link] SR-IOVVirtualFunctions= setting
          and [SR-IOV] section to configure SR-IOV virtual functions.

        Changes in systemd-networkd:

        * The default scope for unicast routes configured through [Route]
          section is changed to "link", to make the behavior consistent with
          "ip route" command. The manual configuration of [Route] Scope= is
          still honored.

        * A new unit systemd-networkd-wait-online@<interface>.service has been
          added that can be used to wait for a specific network interface to be

        * systemd-networkd gained a new [Bridge] Isolated=true|false setting
          that configures the eponymous kernel attribute on the bridge.

        * .netdev files now can be used to create virtual WLAN devices, and
          configure various settings on them, via the [WLAN] section.

        * .link/.network files gained support for [Match] Kind= setting to match
          on device kind ("bond", "bridge", "gre", "tun", "veth", etc.)

          This value is also shown by 'networkctl status'.

        * The Local= setting in .netdev files for various virtual network
          devices gained support for specifying, in addition to the network
          address, the name of a local interface which must have the specified

        * systemd-networkd gained a new [Tunnel] External= setting in .netdev
          files, to configure tunnels in external mode (a.k.a. collect metadata

        * [Network] L2TP= setting was removed. Please use interface specifier in
          Local= setting in .netdev files of corresponding L2TP interface.

        * New [DHCPServer] BootServerName=, BootServerAddress=, and
          BootFilename= settings can be used to configure the server address,
          server name, and file name sent in the DHCP packet (e.g. to configure
          PXE boot).

        Changes in systemd-resolved:

        * systemd-resolved is started earlier (in sysinit.target), so it
          available earlier and will also be started in the initrd if installed

        Changes in disk encryption:

        * systemd-cryptenroll can now control whether to require the user to
          enter a PIN when using TPM-based unlocking of a volume via the new
          --tpm2-with-pin= option.

          Option tpm2-pin= can be used in /etc/crypttab.

        * When unlocking devices via TPM, TPM2 parameter encryption is now
          used, to ensure that communication between CPU and discrete TPM chips
          cannot be eavesdropped to acquire disk encryption keys.

        * A new switch --fido2-credential-algorithm= has been added to
          systemd-cryptenroll allowing selection of the credential algorithm to
          use when binding encryption to FIDO2 tokens.

        Changes in systemd-hostnamed:

        * HARDWARE_VENDOR= and HARDWARE_MODEL= can be set in /etc/machine-info
          to override the values gleaned from the hwdb.

        * A ID_CHASSIS property can be set in the hwdb (for the DMI device
          /sys/class/dmi/id) to override the chassis that is reported by

        * hostnamed's D-Bus interface gained a new method GetHardwareSerial()
          for reading the hardware serial number, as reportd by DMI. It also
          exposes a new method D-Bus property FirmwareVersion that encode the
          firmware version of the system.

        Changes in other components:

        * /etc/locale.conf is now populated through tmpfiles.d factory /etc/
          handling with the values that were configured during systemd build
          (if /etc/locale.conf has not been created through some other
          mechanism). This means that /etc/locale.conf should always have
          reasonable contents and we avoid a potential mismatch in defaults.

        * The userdbctl tool will now show UID range information as part of the
          list of known users.

        * A new build-time configuration setting default-user-shell= can be
          used to set the default shell for user records and nspawn shell
          invocations (instead of of the default /bin/bash).

        * systemd-timesyncd now provides a D-Bus API for receiving NTP server
          information dynamically at runtime via IPC.

        * The systemd-creds tool gained a new "has-tpm2" verb, which reports
          whether a functioning TPM2 infrastructure is available, i.e. if
          firmware, kernel driver and systemd all have TPM2 support enabled and
          a device found.

        * The systemd-creds tool gained support for generating encrypted
          credentials that are using an empty encryption key. While this
          provides no integrity nor confidentiality it's useful to implement
          codeflows that work the same on TPM-ful and TPM2-less systems. The
          service manager will only accept credentials "encrypted" that way if
          a TPM2 device cannot be detected, to ensure that credentials
          "encrypted" like that cannot be used to trick TPM2 systems.

        * When deciding whether to colorize output, all systemd programs now
          also check $COLORTERM (in addition to $NO_COLOR, $SYSTEMD_COLORS, and

        * Meson's new install_tag feature is now in use for several components,
          allowing to build and install select binaries only: pam, nss, devel
          (pkg-config files), systemd-boot, libsystemd, libudev. Example:
           $ meson build systemd-boot
           $ meson install --tags systemd-boot --no-rebuild

        * A new build configuration option has been added, to allow selecting the
          default compression algorithm used by systemd-journald and systemd-coredump.
          This allows to build-in support for decompressing all supported formats,
          but choose a specific one for compression. E.g.:
           $ meson -Ddefault-compression=xz

        Experimental features:

        * sd-boot gained a new *experimental* setting "reboot-for-bitlocker" in
          loader.conf that implements booting Microsoft Windows from the
          sd-boot in a way that first reboots the system, to reset the TPM
          PCRs. This improves compatibility with BitLocker's TPM use, as the
          PCRs will only record the Windows boot process, and not sd-boot
          itself, thus retaining the PCR measurements not involving sd-boot.
          Note that this feature is experimental for now, and is likely going
          to be generalized and renamed in a future release, without retaining
          compatibility with the current implementation.

        * A new systemd-sysupdate component has been added that automatically
          discovers, downloads, and installs A/B-style updates for the host
          installation itself, or container images, portable service images,
          and other assets. See the new systemd-sysupdate man page for updates.

        Contributions from: 4piu, Adam Williamson, adrian5, Albert Brox,
        AlexCatze, Alex Henrie, Alfonso Sánchez-Beato, Alice S,
        Alvin Šipraga, amarjargal, Amarjargal, Andrea Pappacoda,
        Andreas Rammhold, Andy Chi, Anita Zhang, Antonio Alvarez Feijoo,
        Arfrever Frehtes Taifersar Arahesis, ash, Bastien Nocera, Be,
        bearhoney, Ben Efros, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Franzke,
        Brett Holman, Christian Brauner, Clyde Byrd III, Curtis Klein,
        Daan De Meyer, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Danilo Krummrich,
        David, David Bond, Davide Cavalca, David Tardon, davijosw,
        dependabot[bot], Donald Chan, Dorian Clay, Eduard Tolosa,
        Elias Probst, Eli Schwartz, Erik Sjölund, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
        Federico Ceratto, Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal, Gaël PORTAY,
        Georges Basile Stavracas Neto, Gibeom Gwon, Goffredo Baroncelli,
        Grigori Goronzy, Hans de Goede, Heiko Becker, Hugo Carvalho,
        Jakob Lell, James Hilliard, Jan Janssen, Jason A. Donenfeld,
        Joan Bruguera, Joerie de Gram, Josh Triplett, Julia Kartseva,
        Kazuo Moriwaka, Khem Raj, ksa678491784, Lance, Lan Tian,
        Laura Barcziova, Lennart Poettering, Leviticoh, licunlong,
        Lidong Zhong, lincoln auster, Lubomir Rintel, Luca Boccassi,
        Luca BRUNO, lucagoc, Ludwig Nussel, Marcel Hellwig, march1993,
        Marco Scardovi, Mario Limonciello, Mariusz Tkaczyk,
        Markus Weippert, Martin, Martin Liska, Martin Wilck, Matija Skala,
        Matthew Blythe, Matthias Lisin, Matthijs van Duin, Matt Walton,
        Max Gautier, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michal Koutný,
        Michal Sekletár, Mike Gilbert, MkfsSion, Morten Linderud,
        Nick Rosbrook, Nikolai Grigoriev, Nikolai Kostrigin,
        Nishal Kulkarni, Noel Kuntze, Pablo Ceballos, Peter Hutterer,
        Peter Morrow, Pigmy-penguin, Piotr Drąg, prumian, Richard Neill,
        Rike-Benjamin Schuppner, rodin-ia, Romain Naour, Ruben Kerkhof,
        Ryan Hendrickson, Santa Wiryaman, Sebastian Pucilowski, Seth Falco,
        Simon Ellmann, Sonali Srivastava, Stefan Seering,
        Stephen Hemminger, tawefogo, techtino, Temuri Doghonadze,
        Thomas Batten, Thomas Haller, Thomas Weißschuh, Tobias Stoeckmann,
        Tomasz Pala, Tyson Whitehead, Vishal Chillara Srinivas,
        Vivien Didelot, w30023233, wangyuhang, Weblate, Xiaotian Wu,
        yangmingtai, YmrDtnJu, Yonathan Randolph, Yutsuten, Yu Watanabe,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, наб

        — Edinburgh, 2022-05-21

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